40 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION This is unfortunate, for it leaves us without tiny information about Aristotle's opinions on the most interesting problem in later Greek education—the intellectual education in young manhood. Plato, it will be remembered, trained the young 1' guardians " in the mathematical sciences and led them to a knowledge of the supreme good by means of dialectic. It is not improbable that Aristotle had a rather different scheme, His own interest was not in mathematics, but in biology and history, and from the fact that most of the great mathematicians of later days were attached in some way to the school of Plato, while those who investigated natural history or history proper were Aristotelians, we may infer that the latter subjects figured largely in the disci- pline he prescribed for this period. The concluding part of the course, however, was probably much the same as Plato's, lie also would lead the youth into metaphysics to turn their thoughts to the one divine cause of the universe. So far we have been dealing with Aristotle's view of education as development. We pass to the complementary view of education as an art with an end beyond itself. For Aristotle, we have seen, education involves a training of the body, of the character, and of the intellect. What purpose is served by these trainings ? The training of the body, as already noted, is for the sake of the soul. By proper discipline it is fitted to do the work the soul requires of it. But what of the soul itself ? The answer depends on whether we are thinking of the rational or the irrational part of the soul. Since the soul has a double nature, education must have a twofold end. In the first place, it has the immediate practical end of ensuring the well-being of the State by producing good citizens. Accord- ing to Aristotle, the happiness of man depends on the activity of his soul in accordance with the form of virtue or excellence proper to it. And since the distinctive excellence of man, the excellence which marks him oflf from the animals which have passions like his, is that achieved in his social relations, it is obvious that both for his own happiness and for the happiness of the State, education must fit him for the practical duties of citizenship. It is for this reason that he must learn to curb the passions and become temperate, brave, magnanimous, just, There is no place for passions unrestrained by reason in the life of the good citizen.